Comments are welcome, I will try to keep this updated. Enjoy!
12.29.12 - Original Post
1.1.13 - Added more links, split launchers from tools section.
Minecraft is a game about breaking and placing blocks. At first, people built structures to protect against nocturnal monsters, but as the game grew players worked together to create wonderful, imaginative things.
It can also be about adventuring with friends or watching the sun rise over a blocky ocean. It’s pretty. Brave players battle terrible things in The Nether, which is more scary than pretty. You can also visit a land of mushrooms if it sounds more like your cup of tea.
Official Page https://minecraft.net/
OMGcraft is your one-stop-shop for everything Minecraft. Discover the big new tips, tricks, and stuff you should know about Minecraft. Hosted by Chad Johnson, this show will make you a Minecraft expert in no time.
Surviving Minecraft, Minecraft Adventures! http://minecraftworld.wordpress.com/
"Magic Launcher is a new Minecraft launcher which can load mods dynamically without changing or patching the minecraft.jar."
Digiex Minecraft Launcher
"Digiex.net Minecraft Launcher is a custom launcher that allows you to use different versions of minecraft without needing to rename minecraft.jar all the time." Don't worry if you don't have other jar files, it lets you download them!
Lots of handy features, check it out.
"WorldPainter is an interactive map generator for Minecraft. It allows you to 'paint' landscapes using similar tools as a regular paint program. Sculpt and mould the terrain, paint materials, trees, snow and ice, etc. onto it, and much more."
"The Painterly Pack is a fully customizable, 16x16 graphics package for Minecraft which seeks to improve the graphics of the game, while still attempting to keep the overall spirit of the game intact. Featuring over 5000 graphics, textures and sprites, Painterly is still the original and largest repository of textures for making Minecraft look the way YOU want it to look."
Minecraft Painter Maker
Make custom paintings to hang inside the game.
"This is a java application that will allows you to switch between texture packs." http://www.mcpatcherhd.com/ Is a good resource for texture packs.
Create a custom skin for your miner, or use one someone else already made.
"Modloader is a base mod for the majority of the mods out there, it can be considered as a mod manager. It stops conflict between 2 or more mods that can cause serious problems.
However modloader also has its own special features! It creates a new folder in the .minecraft folder that allows you to put some of the mods’ zip file in and auto installs it for you!" http://www.modloader.com/ Is also a good source for mods & info.
Minecraft mods & tools.
Dragon Mounts Mod
"The Dragon Mounts mod is a mod that will allow you to ride the Ender Dragon and summon them whenever you need them with a dragon egg!"